How did it start? The beginnings
Start of the second half of the twentieth century was a period full of tension and rivalry between the two superpowers: the Soviet Union and the capitalist countries led by the United States. A manifestation of this ideological and political conflict was called. "Arms race" alone is spiraling spiral, which was the result of the rapid growth of military capabilities in the two hostile camps.
Concerned about the technological advances of the Soviet Union, the Department of Defense (Department of Defense) USA in 1969, appointed by the Agency for the Advanced Research Projects (Advanced Research Projects Agency ARPA briefly , which aims to create an alternative communication system, the case of use of nuclear weapons by the enemy. begin work on a decentralized network that allows transmission of information. Until now, there were already other communication projects, but they are managed by a central computer, which the malfunction or failure prevented the operation of the entire network.
Initially the network called ARPAnet . consisted of four computers that combine four state scientific institutions. It was decentralized, ie without a central entity managed, and each of the computers was equivalent. In the construction of the project makes use of "packet-switching " Paul Baran considered after the "father of the Internet", American science Polish origin. His concept involved the transmission of information and divided into smaller units called. packets, sending them separately over the network and reconnecting together at the destination. This concept had many advantages, among others, the possibility of using the Internet for many users at once, and in case of transmission error data was enough to send a package that has been damaged or does not arrive at your destination. Moreover, due to the fact that the packets can be sent over the network in various ways, significantly improved throughput across the network.
Work on an alternative form of communication also continued on the European continent. The beginning of the 70 was a period of intensive work over a network of computers in the UK. The resulting network called X.25 and also initially it was connected computers in academic institutions. As the network is in contrast to the ARPAnet was sponsored by the business community, quickly has been used for commercial purposes, and the first users of the network were associated with telecommunications companies and Western Union.
Next year is the rapid development of the ARPANET, shall be agreed protocol which rules are summarized in documents called " Request for Comments ." RFC . Many of these principles operates today as the official web standards. Initially, the services available to remote login and file transfer FTP - File Transfer Protocol . The next period is the development of e-mail. Sending messages between users of different computers, invented in 1971, Ray Tomlinson. He is also the first to introduce the @ character separates the user name from the domain.
As the Internet has become an international network.
The turning point was the year 1973. Given that, the network was created with the idea of easy fast and unlimited communication between users, it is not surprising that developers quickly learned its capabilities and sought to extend it to international field. This happened in 1973 when the ARPAnet exceeded the limits of the United States and formed the first international call from the United Kingdom and Norway. The network is growing rapidly. Establishment of the first Usenet newsgroups - international discussion, so that you can exchange your views regardless of where they are. There are many independent new networks. Already in 1980, there are over 400 servers. This rapid growth forces to develop a standard communication protocol, uniform for all servers. In 1983 is established as the standard for ARPAnet protocol TCP / IP ( called Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol ), used to this day. Each device connected to the network receives its address IP (ang. Internet Protocol) from which the name is adopted today to describe the entire global network. Additionally, a service is created DNS (Domain Name System), by the numerical addresses are translated into understandable to the user domain names.
Another major breakthrough was the chapter on the part of the military ARPAnet MILNET as well as some commercial status - ARPAnet, (1990 NSFNET ). In the meantime, formed a network CSNET ( Computer Science Network ) is intended for scientists and research centers in Europe and EUNET network (European UNIX Network). And it was joining ARPAnet, these networks is considered the beginning of the Internet as we know it today. Shortly network expands to other countries min. Japan, South America, Australia.
Internet slowly becomes the face of which we know today. Jarkko Oikarinen young student from Finland creates IRC protocol that allows you to talk in real time. Also in this period marks the first computer virus ( Internet Worm ) " Brian " written by two Pakistanis. Worked on IBM PC and PC-DOS system, was distributed by the floppy and the result of his actions was to change the disk label to "© Brain". Also created the first catalog of resources, created by Peter Deutsch'a. The " ARCHIE " which surveyed FTP servers and create an index of the contents with the ability to search for files.
Undoubtedly, a huge milestone in the field of information technology contributes to the rapid development of global network and magnifying its resources and the number of users was created Website ( World Wide Web ). The breakthrough idea was born in Cern, the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Physics in Geneva. Working there physicist Tim Berners-Lee came up with the idea of interlinking of documents hosted on WWW (World Wide Web) using hypertext links, allowing a combination of text, graphics and sound. In 1991, he created the first website and browser text to a web-based HTTP ( called Hypertext Transfer Protocol ), hypertext transfer protocol. In 1993, Marc Andreessen created the first graphical browser MOSAIC . Dramatically increases the number of websites and web servers. In 1994, he created a service Yahoo . This idea soon becomes the most famous directory websites, and its founder David Filo and Jerry Yang are billionaires. In 1995, he formed founded by Pierre Omidyar auction site Ebay . In 1998, at Stanford University Larry Page and Sergy Brin developed a novel algorithm BackRab (later PageRank ), for the analysis of hypertext links, search engine used to create Google . In 2000, Google cooperates with Yahoo becoming its main search provider. Their index of URLs already exceeds one billion items, which thus becomes the most popular and biggest search engine in the world.
Currently, Web index contains more than 14 trillion web pages, so it is hardly surprising that competition in the search market is developing dynamically. Parent to date company in the world is definitely Google, but not in all countries. Large national popular search engines such as Baidu in China , or are Yandex in Russia . In these countries, the number of users of Google does not exceed 50%., In Poland, however, this is by far the most popular search engine and it is used by more than 90% of users. In the international market competition important for Google is BING , branded by Microsoft, the search engine rapidly growing areas of the network, and the predecessor of Google-Yahoo, used primarily in English-speaking countries like the U.S. and also in Japan.